Thursday, February 7, 2013

stakeholder theories of development



Response to question (a)
Technological advancement has been of immense benefit both to the population and the organizations within the economy because they enhance establishment of chances and consideration of networking. In reality, the establishment of social networking sites has been identified as one significant attribute of development because of the consideration of increased productivity that has been enhanced through the medium. The recent past has witnessed emergence of significant number of social networking sites like face book, twitter, YouTube and others like net log and blogs. On the verge of these establishments, social networking sites have taken the leading role in ensuring that social relationships are enhanced regardless of the differences in distance because they are conducted over the internet. In this aspect, social networking services can be identified as the online platform that focuses on the aspect of building social relations and networks that comprises of people with similar interests, background, activities and real-life connections. Normally, the aspect of social networking consists of the establishment of personal profiles that are used to enhance connectivity and identification. In the recent past, there has been the call for the organization and its workers to ensure that the attributes of social networking are not detrimental for the performance of the organization because the members of the organization like the employees have the capacity of posting defaming updates that may influence performance of the organization. Analysis across the board has suggested that HRM practitioners must adopt the attributes of technology by engaging in social networking because this will be extremely beneficial for the enhancement of organizational performance. Information collected across the globe has asserted that 83% of employers have used the information for the social networking sites as an attribute of elimination of potential employees by use of the information derived from their profiles. The aspects of social networking services have also been used by employers to spy on the activities of the employees with the aim of deriving crucial information about violation of policies. Given the scope and attributes of social networking development, it is advisable that both ethical theories and stakeholder theories be applied to enhance efficiency of the usage. This sentiment is ideal because various organizations have adopted the attribute of globalization where they establish significant number of contacts that comprises of sellers, buyers, employees and other competitors in the same industry.
Ethical theories and stakeholders of social networking
In the wake of the recent developments, critical development and disparities have been realized through the contributions of social networking sites. This aspect call for the establishment of theories that will be critical in governing the usage of the social networking sites in a way that will not enhance violation of either organizational or personal rights. First, ethical theories are immensely beneficial for this consideration and it forms the basis of social networking operations. The basis of the foundations of ethical practices is based on the establishment of societal norms that encourages positivity and discourages the vices in the society. In the same regard, the internet results in the formation of a wide online society where people interact through the establishment of the internet. In this regard, ethical practices must be maintained because they enhance peaceful coexistence between the members of the sociality. The establishment and observation of the privacy policies highlighted under the usage of social networking sites and the organizations should be critically followed because they enhance the establishment of peaceful coexistence of the friends in the social media.
The establishment of ethics largely concerns that attributes of morality which depicts the feeling of right as noted by the society. In this regard, the aspect of ethics can be classified into values, norms and virtues. Even though there are several ethical theories about the performance of social networking, the ideal ethical theories can be classified into two categories that include relativism and absolutism. Normative theory is coined on the belief that various societies have different beliefs and regards for morals. In this regard, the differences in the morals can mean morals and virtues accepted by one community may not be ideal for another community and this enhances source of conflict. The control measure for this aspect in the organization is the usage of privacy terms and policies. On the other hand, absolute or universalism theory of ethics states that morals and ethics are ideal across the globe. This theory states that norms and values are universally accepted and applicable to everyone at anytime. These features have been the scope of significant number of contentions regarding profile post or defamation or organizational development through the usage of the social networking. This calls for the human resource manager to identify the type of profile that the organization uses in the social network.
Similarly, stakeholder theory is a theory that highlights the aspects of organizational management and ethical standards in business. This theory also realizes and capitalizes on the attributes of using values and morals in managing business organizations. In reality, the organization is composed of individuals with wider diversity and establishments and this calls for the necessity of the members to adopt various policies that will enhance understanding between the parties involved in the organization. Certainly, stakeholder theory comes in handy because it provides an incentive for managing different groups in the organization by giving regards to the existing different parts of the group. It seeks to address the principle of whom or what actually counts in the organization and the realization of mission, objective and the goals. Reports collected from various analysts have stated that the establishment of stakeholder theories is beneficial in providing instrumental view of the corporation because it integrates both the resources and the market aspects of the corporation. This incentive further provides the social political levels that are beneficial for the performance of the organization. The human resource managers of various organizations have adopted the incentive of analyzing the corporate attributes of the organization and the establishment of the social networking has enabled significant understanding to the corporate establishment. This view of the firm has proved to be immensely beneficial in helping the management of various organizations in establishing the aspects of modern corporate organization. In the era of technological advancement, the aspect of stakeholder theory has proven to be ideal because it has the aspects of enhancing performance and regulations of the social network. Over the period, advancement of the social media has taken toll and the consideration of ethics is extremely vital. In this regard, the establishment of the stakeholder system has gained significant incentive because of its attribute in enhancing ethics in business ethics field and other corporate fields.
Response to question (b)
                Over the period, analysis of the research findings has stated that workers have different attitude towards their work and this difference is witnessed with workers of different ages. Human resource managers have also considered that differences in the organization are witnessed in terms of commitment, responsibility and the aspect of privacy between the workers of the organization can be explained through the use of different legislations and theories. To begin with, the young employees of the organization have always stated that they have the right to have the privacy of their communication. According to the privacy act of 1998, the employees are given the freedom to engage in the attributes of development and other activities that will enhance maintains and observation of individual privacy. The employers are also given the authority and the capacity to enjoy the establishment and enactment of codes and privacy attributes that they view to be beneficial for the organization. Over the period, the young workers have been engaged in communication in various social networking sites and the hope of engaging in these sites is to air their voices to the public and the audience. However, the employers of the organization normally eavesdrop on some social channels and this may be detrimental for the performance of the employees because they stand higher chances of being sacked form their jobs.  In this regard, the consideration of initiating communication between the employees is done with the aim of concealing the aspects and other attributes of the organization. The older employees on the hand are of extremely different opinion because they have the belief that privacy should be significantly enhanced and the private affairs should not be posted in the social sites where the public can access the information. In reality, analysis conducted across the existing social networks reveals that there are higher number of younger people than older generation in the site because the private life of the older employees are not highlighted into the social networking sites like those of the younger generation that keeps updating information about their feelings and attitudes. In this regard, the older generation is highlighted as those with ideal understanding about the attributes of privacy laws. On the verge of increased developments, various organizations have initiated development s that will ensures that each particular organization will install unique set of privacy terms and conditions because this will enhance realization of communication as required by the human resource managers. In reality, the younger generation has continued to experience significant challenges because they do not realize that the information posted in the social media belongs to the public and this has significantly affected number of them who have been sued for breach of privacy policies. The younger workers must identify that the establishment of the activities of the social media are governed by the aspects of policies and Acts that are highlighted in the terms and privacy policy attributes. Consideration of this will regulate the pieces of information shared across the social networking sites like the case of Manis who was sacked based on the information posted on the social media.
                Notably, the existing levels of commitment and responsibilities between the younger and the older employees can also be explained through the usage of theories. These differences will be considered based on the theories of motivation that have been significantly applied in many human resource management discourse and the ideal sentiment where the differences are highlighted are the attributes that considers Herzberg Hygiene-Motivator theory and it states that there are factors in the organization that highlights satisfaction to other employees while they represent dissatisfaction to the other members of the same organization. The motivator theory has been of immense benefits in the explanation of the different levels of commitment and assumption of responsibilities. The usage of these theories largely considers the attributes of two factors that include hygiene factors that are critical for motivation in the workplace that acts as a motivator for the workers and its absence in the work place results in the cases of demonization. It is noted that hygiene factors pacify employees thereby making to comprehend the extrinsic factors that are generally present in the organization. Analysis conducted has shown that the older generation are usually more pacified than the younger employees hence the ability to work in the organization and enhance output is achieved cooperation the workers and realization of the factors that enhance production. Another factor that differentiates the two generations is the attributes of dependence on the payment structures and the older generation have placed more reliance on the existence payment programs of the organization to enable them  develop the idea of commitment to the organization. This is in absolute contrast with the younger organizational workers who not commitment to the organizations. The older generation is motivated by the security for their jobs while the younger generation of workers has more emphasis on the development of interpersonal relationship and development. Another significant differences between the two generation of the employees is the older generation prefer the monetary reward mechanism while the younger generation are of the attribute that recognition and praise is ideal and this consideration has the consideration of initiating development in the organization.  With the establishment of the sense of achievement, the younger employees will have the feeling of being contented while the counter parts on the other hand are of the view of attaining significant amount of financial gains and this explains the reason for the establishment of responsibility and commitment.
Finally, there is the level of difference that exists in the terms of the responsibility and commitment between the two age sets. With consideration of McGregor’s theory X and theory Y, it is evident that majority of the older generation belongs to theory X and therefore, the hate to be involved with the jobs that are tedious and this calls for the attributes of using rewards and punishments to stimulate them to work more harder in the organizations. It is evident for the analysis conducted that the older workers will accept conduction of extra responsibility with the condition of extra monetary reward. On the other hand, the younger people in the organization belongs to generation Y are always committed and willing to work without extra earning and this incentive has helped in the consideration of commitment and establishment of responsibility. Satisfaction in the work place forms the basis of consideration for the younger generation for better posts because they do not the threats and rewards to increase their output.
Response to question (c)
The employers are challenged because they need to turn the use of social networking sites by the employees from a win-lose situation to a win-win situation. There are a number of strategies that can be used by the firm. The emergence of technological advancement has been of adverse effects to various organizations across the globe but he employers of various organizations may initiate ideal measure that will ensure that the attributes of social networking works to the advantage of the organization. in reality, the differences in the generational gap has resulted in adverse effects in the organization because the members of the older employers have observed the attributes of social networking as win-lose situation. In reality, this sentiment by considerable employers is biased and the employers can turn the situation to attain win-win situation.
The aspect of unitarism is significant and the majority of the employees have used the social networking sites as a podium for airing their views abut the activities of the organization. this activity is sometimes detrimental for the performance of the organization and the organization becaue critical factors that impacts on the development and performance of the organization may be posted for the general public. The competitors of the organization may also violate the provisions thereby helping them to gain competitive advantage. In this regard, the employers and manager so various organizations have been advised to formulate separate sets of terms and conditions that includes the establishment of privacy policy governing the usage of social networking sites. This incentive will be extremely beneficial because it will regulate the type of information posted in the social networking sites. Apart from regulation of information, the organization will gain form the attributes of pluralism which will ensure that members of the organization discus issues on the same platform without formalities. The establishment of these attributes will ensure that the entire workers of the organization discus ideal features of the organization in the same platform that is unique and private for the organization members only. This will increase performance because it will enhance implementation of new ideas.
The elements of strategic human resource management are extremely beneficial for the performance of the organization because they enhance realization of organizational goals and visions. In reality, the establishment of organizational missions, goals and objectives is a collective idea and the contribution of all the member of the organization and the establishment of social network provides ideal incentive for the members of the organization to interact and exchange beneficial ideas of development. Strategic human resource management is concerned with the realization and implementation of the factors and policies that help in the establishment of organizational performance. The establishment of these factors may take eternity is the attributes of the organization are not collaborating together. However, the elements of collaboration lead to the enhancement of factors that should be implemented by the organization to initiate changes and development. The establishment of the social media has proved to be a very important tool for the consideration of impacting development because the incentive leads to the development of collective ideas that can be highlighted for development. The aspect of initiating change in the organization can only be achieved upon realization of disparities and this is where the attribute of social networking are handy. Incorporation of this system in the management of the organization will enhance establishment of decision making thereby leading to the realization of the organizational missions and objective and this results n the establishment of a win-win situation for the employers.
Finally, the incorporation of social networking into the management and operations of the organization has proven to be ideal because of its effect in the establishment of high commitment human resource management and development of relational psychological contracts. These two attributes are extremely beneficial because they enhance understanding within the scope of the organization. The extreme factor that enhances establishment of understanding in the organization is the establishment of relational management in the organization. In reality, the organization is composed of people from various diversified regions and understanding between these parties must be enhanced through development of a medium. In the recent past, social networking has emerged as a medium that collects data from a cross the global divide and the organizations concerned must seek to develop unique system within the social networking attribute that will ensure the privacy terms are observed and this consideration is significantly dependent on the relationship between the workers of the organization.