Sunday, February 3, 2013

ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY








Introduction
Over the period, the world has experienced increasing aspects of globalization where different nations can engage in the transfer of goods and services through an established system. Technological enhancement experienced in the recent past has enabled the success of this aspect thereby enhancing the performance of various economies. In this aspect, Apple Corporation has managed to undergo significant transformations to emerge as the leading technological firms in the manufacture of electronic gadgets. Since the establishment of the firm in 1968, the company has initiated the use of appropriate policies that has enabled it to transform and involve the contribution of innovation in the enhancement of its products. One significant aspect that has enabled increased performance of the company is the policy of empowering the workers to continue working harder and exploit their potentials and talents in the company (Froud, J., Sukhdev,  Leaver  and Williams, 2012 103). The company has devised methods of rewarding proficient employees. The employees must prove their competence to earn promotion and freedom in the company. Over the years of development, the managers of the company have initiated the use of appropriate organizational theories and perspectives to enhance development of the policies and realization of goals and objectives of the company. Based on the overall rating and analysis, Apple Corporation is characterized as one of the most successful companies in the global perspectives (Kramer, Linden, and Dedrick, 2011 57). Analysis of organizational management has revealed that the enhancement of proper organizational skills and perspectives have significant contribution to the performance of the organization because it enhances the establishment of innovation and invention of new ideas that leads the realization of objectives of the organization.

Over the period, Apple Multinational Corporation has established itself as the leading supplier of computer software, consumer electronics and commercial servers. In addition, the company has specialized in the production of the following items, iPod, iPhone, iPod and Macintosh (Crowther, and Green, 2008 67). The corporation has an established goodwill because it has been able to continue offering outsourcing service to all the nations of the world. In this regard, various company managers have aspired to establish companies with global benchmark like the company by Steve Jacobs. One aspect that has led to the success of the company is the adoption of applicable organizational structure and theories that advocates for diversification in line of development of production and precision of outcome. The corporation has diversified into the production of computer software, mobile phone gadgets and music systems (Daft, R.L. 2007 84). Certainly, diversification has an effect in enhancing global outsourcing and improving the production output of the company. in addition, employee recognition has also significantly enhanced the performance of the organization because the contributions of every employees is always taken with utmost precision and finally implemented.

Organization management is enhanced by the use of theories and perspectives. In reality, different theories and perspective are applicable to different organizations because of the set up of the organizations. Therefore, the managers and decision makers of the organizations must establish the appropriate theories to be adopted by the respective organization that will enhance development of the organization. Another aspect of organizational development is the choice of organizational perspective that stimulates development. In this aspect, the managers must establish different aspects of the company before establishing theories and perspectives. Over the period, the establishment of Apple Corporation has enhanced performance other companies by conduction of outsourcing. This aspect has enhanced the growth of other businesses significantly. However, other managers and corporation have initiated an incentive to study and analyze the criteria used by the managers of Apple Corporation (Yoffie, Slind M. 2008 23). Upon realization of these aspects, the managers aim to establish the success factor behind Apple Corporation. The analysis of the corporation reveals that the following organizational perspectives have enhanced the performance of the company.

Organizational and contingency theory
With the increase in the complexity of the organization, the corporation exhibits increasing complexities in the management of employees. However, it is also evident that with the increase in the number of employees, the management is faced with the challenge of enacting managerial skills and rules. This calls for the development of organizational management theories to aid in the handling of complex issues that are evident when dealing with employees (Grandori, 1987 71). In order to help the managers impose managerial skills and tactics, the use of managerial theories is paramount.

The proponents of contingency theory and perspective based their opinion on the fact that there is better way of solving a problem or a situation. The development of this perspective recommends the use of different aspects and theories in managing the organization. The organization is a complex entity that requires different aspects of managerial programs to enhance its performance. In this regard, the use of technology is adequately vital for the enhancement of performance of the organization. The aspects of organizational management adopted by this perspective can be classified in the manner in which they affect the performance of the organization. These factors can be classified to include the organizations’ size, technological requirements and the environmental aspects. The analysis of Apple Corporation reveals that all these factors have significant aspects in the role of management. The managers and policy makers of Apple Corporation acknowledge that aspect of contingence perspective to understand the complexities of the organization (John McAuley (FIPD.), 2007 92). In view of this managerial perspective, size refers to the number of personnel, capacity of the company, output with regard to customers and sales and finally, the resources and wealth of the organization. The analysis of the perspective shows that increasing the aspect of size has an impact of increasing the structure of the organization and significantly decreasing the concentration of power. The managerial practices and aspects that include flexibility in assignments, the extent of duty delegation and enhancement of results are extremely related to the size of the corporation (Yoffie, Slind., 2008 97). The top management of Apple Corporation has recognized the role of size in the organization and has significantly employed the use of this aspect by engaging in a controlled selection of regulations and delegation of duties to the personnel.

Another critical aspect of contingency perspective considered by Apple Corporation is the aspect of technology. Technology has significant contribution in the performance of the company. With the global advancement in technology, it is extremely beneficial for the organization to adopt technological changes and enhance the results in their commodities (Clegg, S., Kornberger, M. and Pitsis. 2005 104). The analysis of Apple Corporation significantly shows that the company has established the incorporation of technology in the production. Technology has enabled the company to embrace division of labour and innovation. So far, Apple Corporation has established itself in the market as the leading firm in terms of innovation and adoption of technology. This realization has enabled the company to establish itself as the leading innovative firm. This incentive can be emaciated by other managers who aspire to establish firms with global recognition like the Apple Corporation.

Finally, the analysis of the contingence perspective advocates for the analysis of environmental contributions. The performance of a company has immense relations with the prevailing environmental aspects. The environment contributes towards enhancing the performance of the organization through different perspective that includes adaptation, natural selection, institutionalization and dependence. Adaptation is extremely beneficial for the performance of the business organization. During the aspect of increased completion in the market, Apple Corporation initiated the aspect of manufacturing radically new product to the market. Market adaptation is an establishment that was used by the company to enhance broadening of their market share by a significant margin. Another aspect of environmental contribution is the establishment of natural selection. Natural selection involves the conduction of market survey to establish the needs and the requirement s of the market. The company management then engages in the aspect of manufacturing goods and services that are required by the consumers in the market. This aspect is enhanced by innovation which has been the driving force behind Apple Corporation. Over the years of production, Apple Corporation has continued to enhance the practice of innovation that has enabled them to increase the amount of utility derived from the consumption of their products. Therefore, other corporation that aspires to engage in production like Apple Corporation must effectively employ the usage of technology, organizational size and the environment to enhance their production by a significant margin.

Critical theory and perspective
Critical perspective analyzes the dynamism of the organization in terms of employees and career placement. It is highly beneficial for the organization to consider hiring employees with expertise in specific regions. Social stratification aspect of the organization enhances the development of the organization by enhancing on the performance of the employees. Notably, research findings have stated that the output of employees is enhanced by placement of employees in their areas of expertise. This has the impact of enhancing the performance of the company. The managers of Apple Corporation have employed the use of social stratification to initiate development of the company’s goals and objectives. Because of this perspective, it is beneficial to consider the social aspects of the measures taking place in the organization. The organization must stipulated measures of dealing with conflicts and other measures affecting the employees because they have the effect of reducing the performance of the organization. The critical analysis and the perspective of social stratification enhance the performance of the organization by influencing on the critical performance of the employees. Over the period, Apple Corporation has continued to gain global recognition because of the implication of critical perspective that has helped ensure significant advancement in the quality of its production (Bryman, Alan and Bell, Emma. 2003 93). Critical perspective is beneficial in highlighting the benefits of ensuring efficient employee placement and career development. This perspective also considers the development of innovative ideas that are beneficial towards enhancement of the organizations developments.

Organizations are founded on basic fundamentals with stipulated guidelines on enhancing performance of all the employees and that of the organization at large. Over the period, researchers and theorists have established the usage of organizational theories to enhance the performance of the organization. however, reports collected for successful organizations shows usage of many theories does not results in the enhancement of organizational performance. This is because different organization has different capacities of operation. An example highlighting the origin of success in the organization is the need to use critical perspective. Critical perspective advocates for the enactment of policies to encourage placement of employees in their respective areas of perspectives where they will be able to work minimum supervision and comfortably. This perspective was a adopted by the management of Apple corporation in their management and they have been able to establish a global reputation of being the most successful company. The managers of Apple Corporation have successfully adopted the usage of critical perspective to increase the rate of innovation and assimilate all the professional talents by encouraging the employees to work harder. In reality, the aspect has significantly impacted on the performance of Apple Corporation because the company has emerged to be one of the best performing corporations in the global business environment.


The growth of Apple’s influence
Observation of organizational culture and behavior are extremely vital for the development of the organization because these aspects have significant influences on the operations and the perception of the organization. The development of Apple has posed significant influence on the marketers of various products because of the sleek designs and effective brands that maximizes the utility of the consumers. Within the organization, the managers and stakeholders have established cultures that are observed as cultures in the organization. Because of the enactment of these cultures, the organization has enabled to overcome the challenges of market failures and cut throat competition to emerge as the most successful; and innovative corporation. In this regard, Apple has significant influence on the companies dealing in the same line of development and other markets dealing in Apple products because of the significant increase in sales. The establishment of culture is extremely vital for the performance of the organization because it enhances an increase in the productivity of the employees. One important aspect for consideration is the aspect of employee’s contribution. Apple Corporation has significantly devised methods to enhance and motivate their employees to be innovative in their developments. Innovation has been the secret of Apple that has led to the invention of better and radical items in the market. The company has devised methods to ensure that employee’s contributions are rewarded and the innovative ideas implemented by the company. This attribute has enhanced the performance of the company because new ideas from employees are continuously being implemented. This aspect of development and enhancement of new ideas has enabled the company to influence the performance of many companies significantly because of the success.

The efficiency and influence of the organization has also been attained through the significant usage of organizational theories that have enhanced the performance of the organization. Organization theories were designed by researchers to help in the management of the organization. The analysis of postmodern theory states that organization and culture have significant relations (Hatch, Mary J. and Cunliffe, Ann L., 2006 106). In reality, culture is extremely important for the enhancement of organizational performance because it impacts on the behavior and performance of the employees. Culture specifically impacts on the behavior of the employees and enhances the establishment of output. The productivity of the employees is significantly enhanced by the adoption of culture adopted by the established organization. Over the period, various companies have continued to be influenced by the performance of Apple Corporation because of its stability and the market share it controls. Certainly, Apple Corporations has established significant market capitalization. The company has established capital base that has enabled it to it practice continued innovation with the aim of bettering the products that it produces (Robbins, Stephen and Barnwell, Neil, 2006 284). The analysis of research conducted has revealed that organizational theories cannot be separated from the cultures because cultures are embedded into the practices of the employees while organizational theories are organizational tools used by the management of the organizations to help the organization realize its goals and objectives. Culture of the organization is enhanced by the environment or passed down from the ancestral linkages and they impact on the performance of the employees. The success factor of the company has greater correspondence with the cultural values of the employees that has continued to impact on the performance of the company (Mills, and Simmons. 1995 12). One aspect of culture that has dominated the performance of the organization is the secrecy of the organization. The organization has established secrecy policy and the employees must adhere to the secrecy terms of the corporation. Due to the enhancement of competition in the market, the managers have developed a culture of secrecy to help the firm maintain the copyright of its inventions and inventions. Any employee who violates the culture has the option of facing punitive measure. One typical case involved the case of one employee disregarding the organizational culture and had to face death in china. Therefore, establishment of culture is an extremely vital aspect that has impacted on the performance of the organization.

Rationality product of social collaboration
Global sustainability of the product and corporation are largely dependent on the rationality and social collaboration. The management and employees of Apple Corporations has significantly employed the use of these attributes of enhance performance of the company. Theoretical evidence has pointed out the enactment of cultural practices in the organizations has significantly enabled the enhancement of product rationality and social collaboration. Apple Corporation has emerged a global network with advanced technological developments and cultural practices. Romantic vs. modernist’s view of the company differs because of the incorporation of the cultures in the enhancement of production of the organization. Because of the advancement of the organization, other corporations have been inspired to achieve significant market share like Apple Corporation (Jones, G.R. 2004 30). Therefore, an insight into the policies and attributes Apple Corporation is beneficial because other managers can adequately learn the measures and practices of advancing their knowledge. In this regard, an insight into the usage of culture is extremely beneficial because it enhances the performance of organization. An organization must realize the contribution of culture in the enhancement of performance.


Conclusion
Since the establishment of the Corporation in 1968, Apple Corporation has continued to experience significant growth. The application of appropriate organizational theories and perspectives has enabled the company to acquire significant market share. One aspect that has enabled development of the organization is the initiative to diversify into the production of computer software, mobile phones and other electronic gadgets. Based on the overall rating and analysis, Apple Corporation is characterized as one of the most successful companies in the global perspectives. Analysis of organizational management has revealed that the enhancement of proper organizational skills and perspectives have significant contribution to the performance of the organization because it enhances the establishment of innovation and invention of new ideas that leads the realization of objectives of the organization.  Because of the advancement of the company, it has influenced the performance of other networks and corporation. However, critical analysis of the company shows that the managers have involved the usage of organizational theories, perspectives and culture. Analyses have also shown culture has an integral role in the enhancement of the organizations performance.






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