Sunday, February 3, 2013

HRM and Culture





Question 1
            Should gender be a consideration when staffing local management position?
Response
            Over the period, the management pattern of various organizations has significantly changed to include women in the managerial position. Many people in the managerial capacities have adopted the positive consideration asserting that gender should not be a consideration when staffing local management position. The period of the past was characterized with increased discrimination against the women. However, the recent past has seen the rise of a new era where women are allowed to actively take part in the management of an organization. The need to include the women in the staffing of managerial position has led to the establishment of gender ministries and discrimination committees to highlight the rising cases of discrimination in the work place. However, it has been observed that women are actively taking the managerial positions in all the countries of the world. The analysis of the global statistics shows that the women in managerial position account for 22% of the total managerial positions globally (Chakravarthy, 1985). Even though this rate s alarming, there are institutions that have been put in place to ensure that women managers excel in there managerial positions like the male counterparts.
 The global statistics of business with no women in the senior management has remained to be 38% for a period of more than 4 years. This stagnation in women management is supported by some countries which hold that women are not good managers and they lead to a decline in the performance of the business venture. These countries include Russia with 15% drop in performance of business, Italy with 6% drop in business earnings, Poland and New Zealand both registering a drop of 9% in the performance of the business earnings. On a different note, the global statistics has also proved that the percentage of women in the local management teams has slightly increased from 19% to 22% based on the recent survey of gender and discrimination (Jeniffer, 1996). One country that has adopted strict discrimination laws is the country of Philippines where women occupy 50% of managerial positions in local government and the business sector. This country has well established laws that ensure both women and men have equal chances at the work place.
Gender should not be a consideration during the consideration of staffing local managerial positions because both sexes have the capacity to perform and complete the duties. The establishment of superiority notion by the men is a dogmatic belief that should be abolished. The argument that women cannot stay in office for long hours has been proven wrong by the women managers in Korea when the women championed the introduction of new marketing techniques. The women had to stay longer than usual in the offices to enhance the success of the projects. In addition, the woman, Kim working with Samsung has been on the forefront on the fight to enhance the change in marketing technique (Peter Dowling, 1994). She finally succeeded and improved the sales figure of the company. Women are hard working individuals and should be included in the consideration of the managerial position in both local government and the senior positions in the global business perspective.
Forms of discrimination against the women
The rise of women to the managerial positions has been faced with significant fights and endurance because of the established forms of discrimination in the work place. The growing concerns for the discrimination of women in the work places are based on the inbuilt cultural beliefs that identify women as the weak sexes with few roles in the society. In this regard, some women are denied career opportunities despite their excellent qualifications. In addition, the perception of women being weak has enabled many employers to divert attention to the male fraternity who are believed to be strong ad muscular to handle the challenges. In reality, the women are not actually weak as depicted by the construction workers. The analysis of this industry reveals that women constitute 13% of the workers which is alarming (Chakravarthy, 1985).
Discrimination against women because of pregnancies is a criminal offence in most global countries. The women in the managerial staff often receive discrimination owing to promotion and pregnancies. In a bid to fight gender discrimination, all these forms of discrimination against the women are considered offensive and are chargeable in court of law. Apart from victimization in the work place, some men receive much higher pay than women for performing the same task. However, the newly enacted global strategy will seek to ensure that gender discrimination in the work place is significantly reduced. This will ensure that both men and women have equal chances and opportunities in the work place like the situation in Philippines where equality prevails in the work place.

Question 2
Should gender be a consideration for selecting an expatriate for an overseas assignment?
Response
In reality, the issue of gender should not be a consideration when selecting the expatriate for overseas assignment. The enactment of global gender rules requires that the overseas assignment be faced with equal chances for the male and female. Despite the above assertions by national governments, the selection of overseas expatriates is faced with significant challenges because of the prevailing notion that women are the weaker sex and cannot deliver the desired results as their male counterparts (Peter Dowling, 1994). Therefore, the analysis of the number of global expatriates reveals the number of women has increased but further efforts are still necessary prompting the need for campaigning to be conducted to enlighten the women fraternity.
            Over the period, the expatriate selection board has organized the criteria to be used in the selection of overseas representatives. One significant factor to consider is the use of academic qualifications. The position of overseas expatriates attracts interests from both male and female members of the state. However, it has been established the selection for the overseas expatriate’s selection is largely based on sex rather than academic qualification. The women applicants have been sidelined during the selection process and the matter is getting worse when the selected female representatives undergo discriminatory experiences at the posted stations (Tung, 1988). The acceptance of overseas assignment has for a period been viewed as the most fulfilling aspect of the career establishment and the studies have shown that both men and women have the same interest and the quest to establish their career by accepting overseas assignment. However, there is a predominance of the male fraternity in the selection of the overseas representatives that it is generally assumed that women are not interested in the overseas positions. The study conducted on 1000 masters’ graduates revealed that both women and men equally have the interest of joining overseas for the position of expatriates.
            Even though gender should not be a consideration in selecting an expatriate for an overseas assignment, the women have continued to show laxity in the commitment towards attaining managerial position. In addition, majority of the women in the managerial positions have instituted lack of interested in learning about the repercussions and the adversities that comes with the position. Therefore, as much as women may aspire to be engaged in the position of an expatriate in overseas countries, only few women shows concern and move ahead to grasp the opportunity. This is in contrast with the male fraternities who are aggressive and consider the position as a challenge to their careers (Chakravarthy, 1985). In the wake of this realization, it is evident that majority of the women are not sidelined because most of the qualified women do not consider applying for the positions listed by the overseas expatriates.
            The issue of gender consideration in the selection of international expatriate is sometimes a stumbling block that requires the selection of male and sidelining the women applicants. It is extremely critical to consider that the performance of an expatriate largely depends on lack of emotional stress. In this regard, research findings have established that women are not willing to live their families behind when accepting international jobs. Instead, they want to uproot the whole family to their new location abroad. This aspect can be a daunting task because it has significant budget constraint elements. And for this aspect, the selecting board always considers selecting single career women for the task.
            Gender is also important during the selection of an expatriate because spouses of qualified women may present problematic situations during the admission of duties. Dual career spouse can be a daunting task leading to lack of spousal support in the establishment of overseas career. The analysis of the global work force has revealed the spouses of successful career women are often established career men who do want to consider quitting their careers to accompany the spouses on the international assignment. In this regard, it is extremely critical that the aspect of gender be considered when making selection for the international expatriate assignment.  The conduction of gender analysis will help in the establishment of successful performance of the duty (Peter Dowling, 1994). Therefore, male fraternity have continued to dominate the field of expatriate overseas assignment because they are more suited to work in more adverse environments without affecting the lives of their families. Hence, the analysis of gender is extremely critical for these appointments.

Question 3
Discuss what factors must be considered if a US Multinational corporation decides to staff a leadership position in south Korea with a woman.
            Response
            The analytical results have stated that women in South Korea are on the verge of experiencing economic downturn because they have continued to be disregarded in the society. The involvement of women in any activity has been prohibited and the women continue to suffer because of the continuing discriminatory laws. Over the period, the Korean women have continued to participate in only education career. However, this situation slightly changed with the occurrence of the world crisis that led to the massive loss of jobs for the male fraternity prompting the women to engage in business activities. Despite the above considerations, cultural and social beliefs in the state of South Korea continue to derail the development and involvement of the women in any political, social or economic activities because of the view that women are weaker sex and the men do not pay attention to them (Chakravarthy, 1985). This is evidenced by the fact that there are only two women ministers in the House of Representatives. In the wake of realities, the people of South Korea have realized that women discrimination is adversely affecting the performance of the economy and the establishment of the gender and discrimination ministry has sleeked to provide a lasting solution by offering guidelines.
            The Korean culture believes that women leaders must work to earn the position by offering sexual favors. In turn, the women are paid 68% of what their male counterparts earn. The employers simply undervalue the services of the women and are quick to offer them resignation letters for the offenses committed.
            In a market full of adversities and atrocities against the women, the US multinational corporation must consider the market aspect of employing a woman leader in the South Korean firm. In the wake of the realities, the market in the South Korea has awakened to the crisis of the global financial crisis and has had a significant change of opinion in regard to the women in the society. Facts about Korea have stated that the women excel in education more than the male but are less likely to be employed (Jeniffer, 1996). Therefore, by appointing the women in the leadership position of the multinational corporation, the citizens of South Korea will have a significant change of perspective and will experience an extreme challenging environment where a woman is the head.
            It is important for the multinational corporate executives to consider the cultures prevailing in the South Korea before making the appointment. One aspect that is likely to occur is that the male fraternity may not take orders for the female boss because of their culture and their regard for the women. This may have significant effects on the establishment of the duties of the organization. The male fraternity in South Korea have pronounced discriminatory aspects for the women the in the society that they disregard the contribution of the women in the building of the economy.
            The presence of a women leader in the midst of discriminatory culture may help regulate the position of women in the society. The executives may consider employing a woman in the leadership position to inspire the South Korean women to rise and take up leadership positions. Analysis of research findings has suggested that the women in South Korea are extremely educated but only 60% of them are employed (Tung, 1988). Therefore, employing a woman in the leadership position may help in changing the cultural prevalence in South Korea and establish a stable platform where the women and men compete equally in the job market. Assigning the position of corporate leadership to a woman would significantly influence the perception and discrimination in South Korea because the women would be empowered to participate in economic activities.
            Finally, the decision to appoint a woman leader in the US multinational corporation may be aimed at increasing the output of the corporation. In the state of South Korea, the women are more productive than the male counterparts but are less likely to get employment opportunities. The productivity of the Korean Women is due to the fact that majority of the women performing well academically than the male counterparts (Tung, 1988). Therefore, by employing a woman in the leadership position, the South Korean women will be encouraged to take up job opportunities and help in the betterment of the Multinational Corporation. With the increase in the campaign about social rights, the women in South Korea have experienced increased participation in education and developmental aspects.

References
Chakravarthy, B. S. (1985). Columbia Journal of World business. "Strategic Planning for Global Business" , 1-10.
Jeniffer, L. (1996). Personell journal. "HR Pioneers Explore the Road Less Traveled" , 70-78.
Peter Dowling, R. S. (1994). International dimensions of human resource management. Belmont: Wadsworth Pub. Co.
Tung, R. L. (1988). The new expatriates: managing human resources abroad. Cambridge: Ballinger