Friday, August 2, 2013

PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION IN THE COMMONWEALTH CARIBBEAN

Abstract
The periods of the recent past has witnessed the emergence of significant growth in various global economies because of the enactment of ideal public administration tools. The choice of tools and policies enacted in the economy has also been identified as one of integral attribute that results in the development of increased societal benefits. In the wake of this reality, analysis of the Commonwealth Caribbean has reflected an increase in the performance of these economies. Certainly, these nations can be grouped together to depict the ex-colonial control of the British government. However, the advents of growth and development has resulted in the collapse o the colonial power leading to the establishment of independence of these nations.

According to the records, the Commonwealth Caribbean comprises of various countries and these can be identified as Barbados, Saint Lucia, Trinidad, Tobago, Jamaica, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Dominica and the Bahamas amongst others (Bill Jones, 1987). Upon attaining independence from the British government, the administrators of these economies have instituted measures aimed at increasing the performance of these economies. Some of then leading changes that have been instituted into these economies is to enhance the change in the political set up, social relation and economic establishments.

Background of the research
The enactment of changes that have ideal impacts in the economy has proven to be an integral attribute that has resulted in the emergence of disparities in the Commonwealth Caribbean. The administrators of these economies have enacted measures that seek to undertake reforms in the economy by championing for the changes in political structure, social activities and economic practices (Bill Jones, 1987). Despite the enactment of these changes, the establishment of ideal public management has resulted in the failure of the economic restoration efforts and this has further propagated the consideration of ensuring the prevalence of inadequate public administration. In this regard, ideal change in the Commonwealth Caribbean will be achieved upon the adoption of ideal public administration that will seek to address the disparities and atrocities in the economies.

With the end of the Second World War, the leading economies of the Commonwealth Caribbean have instituted ideal constitutional changes with the aim of enhancing changes in development and further helping in the establishment of increased performance. Certainly, the proposed changes that target the development of constitutional, political, social and economic advancements have not impacted on the development of these nations because the economies continue to languish in poverty and reduced development (RICHARDSON & NGWENYA, 2013). In this regard, the enactments of the ideal developmental incentives have been characterized by the dominance of failures in public administrations. Further records have shown that these nations have similarities and differences and the enactment of ideal policies may therefore subject some of the economies to the attributes of reduced development.

Literature review

The topic concerning the public administration in the Commonwealth Caribbean has been the subject of various discussions across the global regime. In this regard, various researches have expressed their concerns and feelings about the disparities facing the establishment of performance in the region. The reports have stated that all the countries under considerations in the Commonwealth Caribbean have essential similarities and differences. This is essential because they help explain some of the factors that results in the enactment of performance. Some of the differences that have been identified included resource endowment, stages of political and economic development, ethic composition, government operations and the political dominance (RICHARDSON & NGWENYA, 2013).

The departure of the British colonies has been deemed as essential and also detrimental. The colonial government provided ideal great support towards the public administration but the emerging national government and self governance has resulted in the reduction of the concern accorded to the attributes of public administration (Schoburgh, 2012). In this regard, public administration is portrayed as an essential factor that enhances development of the nation by ensuring that all the economic agents perform optimally. Ideal public administration initiative also ensures increased operation of the economic agents.

Finally, the critical role of public administration is to ensure that ideal rules and policies are enacted into the economy with the aim of increasing the attributes of development. However, the establishment of public administration in the Commonwealth Caribbean has been characterized by series of failures. Public administration has continued to be identified as an essential component that enhances development of various economies and it has enhanced the aspect of increased enactment of policies (Schoburgh, 2012). Generally, public administration has been identified as the aspect that concerns the implementation of government policy and also considers the establishment of academic policy with the aim of highlighting the priorities of enacting the goals. The preparation of the public servants and the establishment of ideal working environment is the role of public
administration and this role is achieved through the implementation of public management programs and polices.

The requirement of public administration stipulates that the government organizations must be organized. This concerns the management of government programs and policies and the behavior of the government officials. The consideration of adopting the attributes of development has noted that the Commonwealth Caribbean government has experienced laxities and failures in the enactment of these policies and this has largely contributed towards the failure of these economies (Brown, 2010). In view of the facts highlighted above, the Commonwealth Caribbean governments have experienced detrimental factors that have resulted in the emergence of problems within the economies. Amongst some of the factors that have resulted in the emergence of the failures are the rising cases of corruption and the unwarranted behaviors of the government officials. Furthermore, the realization of instabilities of the political establishment has also resulted in the reduction of economic investments and regional developments (Revauger, 2008). Despite the realization of these failures, these governments have instituted measures that are geared towards the enhancement of increased performance and economic growth.

The composition of the pupation of the nations in the Commonwealth Caribbean has been identified as one of the predicament that has reduced the capacity of public administration in the region. In reality, the region of the Commonwealth Caribbean is characterized by diverse ethnicity that comprises of both blacks, Indians, West Indies, whites and South Americans. In view of this realization, there exist series of ethnic divisions and the consideration of reduced attributes of development that results in the reduction of interaction between the member states (Clegg, 2006). Certainly, majority of the nations in this category have attained the concept of self governance but other five states have received significant control from the British government.

These disparities in the economies have resulted in the reduction of GDP development. Another significant factor derived from this realization is the establishment of critical disparities in political dispensation. In reality, politics play an integral role in the establishment of development of a given nation where directs the flow of resources and also commands the enactment of developmental policies and goals. In this regard, the establishment of poor political dispensation is the detrimental factor that has resulted in the reduction of economic performance.

With the existence of various ethnic compositions of the economies, coordination and collaboration of the economies has continued to be a challenge for the realization of public administration. This capacity has resulted in the emergence of disparities in the admission of public development and enactment of public performance programs. Further information from the Caribbean region has highlighted that the establishment of various ethnic divisions has reduced corporation between the members of the economy (Clegg, 2006). This factor has further resulted in that capacity of promoting cultural variations and unethical behaviors. Unethical behaviors largely reduce the realization of public administration. Political instability has also reduced the capacity of investment in the commonwealth Caribbean region. Reduction in the rates of investments has further resulted in the attributes of reduced GDP in the economy (Schoburgh, 2012). Reduction in GDP further has detrimental effects in the operations of the economy and often results in the consideration of reducing the capacity public administration.

Analytical Discussion
Crown colony government
The development of the crown government has also been identified as one factor that largely reduced the capacity of operations of the Commonwealth Caribbean. Indeed, the crown colony government has resulted in the critical reduction of public administration because it restricted the capacity of enacting critical policies, regulations and programs that leads to the development of the nations. The enactment of this system of government had the attribute of reducing the attribute of self governance by highlighting the systems of British rule and encouraging the dimensions of development.

The emergence of crown government was realized upon the establishment of economies in the nations of the Commonwealth Caribbean. In the wake of these developments, the attributes of these economies had impacts in the transition from the tobacco economy to the sugar based economy that was characterized by plantation farming (Donaghy & Muirhead, 2008). The mergence of plantation farming was extremely essential and resulted in the emergence of ideal development and further necessitated the

consideration of impacting on the establishment of ideal rule and regulations that favor conduction of agriculture. Despite this aspect of development, the establishment of the crown system of government has been identified as a leading stumbling block that reduces the enactment of critical economic corrective patterns because of the subsequent control from the British government. Crown system of government consists of the governor, council and an elected assembly. Under this system, the governors had power but lacked authority while the assembly had authority but lacked power. A leading characteristic of this government is the fact that the governor passes the laws while the assembly controls the allocation of the budget (Rose, Chaison & de la Garza, 2000).

In this capacity, the British government was able to exert system f control that reduces the operations of the government agents. The realization of these factors has resulted in the emergence of atrocities and difficulties that concerns the essence of enactment of rules, regulations, policies and government programs aimed at increasing the concept of development. It was observed that bad politics between the two houses played an integral role in preventing the enactment of ideal amendments aimed at increasing the onsets of developments. In this regard, the establishment of the crown government can be identified as one of the critical factors that reduce those activities of public administration in the Commonwealth Caribbean.

Poor political reforms
Over the period, the consideration of the political reforms in the Commonwealth Caribbean have propagated the consideration of enacting attributes of government development with the hope of increasing the realization of public administration. The collapse of the British ruling in the Commonwealth Caribbean had detrimental factors but the leading factor was the emergence of the corrupt and un-established political ruling (Rose, Chaison & de la Garza, 2000). The consideration of political ruling was initiated in 1940s and this leadership was mostly constituted of the blacks. Another factor that has reduced the enactment of reforms and establishment of ideal public administration during this period was the capacity of riots and uprisings. The emergence of riots reduced the establishment of sugar plantations and further reduced the capacity of development. According to the facts highlighted above, government administration refers to the capacity of the government to initiate measures and implements rules and policies that seek to empower the economy. The prevalence of ethical practices is also a factor for consideration for public administration. In view of this, the governments of the Commonwealth Caribbean have failed in their capacity to enhance the realization of public administration because of the prevalence of unethical prices and poor

political reforms (Fitzpatrick, Goggin Heikkila, Klingner, Machado & Martell, 2011). The prevalence of unethical practices has the capacity of altering the implementation of ideal policies that leads to the mitigation of changes in the economies. The departure of the British government resulted in the consideration of increasing the vulnerability of the Commonwealth Caribbean rulers. This called for the establishment of critical reforms to initiate development of public administration. However, the absence of these reforms and the prevalence of unethical practices in the economies like corruption have resulted in the decline in the capacity to implement these factors. In this regard, the realization of public administration has continued to experience decline.

Finally, the political systems have been identified as both stable and fragile. This is because they have inherited the democratic traditions and parliamentary systems of the Westminster model. Political supersession has often been handled peacefully and democratically. Upon the departure of the British, the hoped to strengthen the political stability of the smaller islands by making them part of the larger and stable economies but this capacity was largely declined (Rowat, 1996). This capacity has resulted in the establishment of constitutional appraisal that has reduced the enactment and dominance of public administration.

Economic challenges and restoration
Apart form the factors highlighted above, economic challenge has also been identified as one of the predicaments that has adversely affected the operations of the economies in the Commonwealth Caribbean. Economic down turn has immense contribution in reducing the implementation of the developmental and administrative policies. The choices of the policies for the development in the economy are generally determined by the establishment of ideal policies. During the period of the 1980s, the leading challenge sin the economy was identified as the variations in the performance of the economies (Rowat, 1996). This disparity followed the collapse of the sugar industry and the erosion of the world prices. Additionally, the existing education system failed to educate the workers and the entire population about other alternative technological establishment that can be used n the establishment of economic growth. The economy was characterized by inadequate professional worker supply upon the exit of the British workers in the economy. This capacity was extremely detrimental and it resulted in the attribute of reduced capacity of production of capital goods, reduced economic growth and the increase in external debts.

In reality, these factors have adverse effects on the operation of the economy because it reducers the attributes of perception and development of the economic agents. This is critical because it has the capacity of ensuring reduction in the enactment of public administration. The professional interpretation of the public administration incentives faced essential disparities due insufficient political and technological knowhow. The decline in the operation of the economy resulted in the reeducation of the business and corporate exports to the United States and destinations (Rose, Chaison & de la Garza, 2000). The reduction in the trading activities had detrimental and adverse impacts thereby leading to the establishment of poor implementation of public administration. The reduction in the attributes of public administration further reduced the prosperity of the Commonwealth Caribbean through the alteration of the choices made by the economies. The establishment and enactment of public administration is largely influenced by the development of ideal economic paradigm.

The performance of the economy is essential and largely impacts on the implementation of the administrative duties. Ideal economic policies are the result of strong public administrative policies that are enacted with the hope of ensuring self reliance and self governance. Certainly, the government of the Commonwealth Caribbean has realized the need to ensure the development of the strong economic policies and this can be witnessed by the development of extreme tourism policies (Schoburgh, 2012). Since the establishment and the enactment of tourism policies, the Commonwealth Caribbean has initiated the journey towards economic development and restoration of performance. In this regard, it is critical to consider that economic disparities largely affect the establishment of the public administration.

Political reunion
Over the period, the establishment of the economies has realized that the increase in the performance of the economies is largely based on the realization of political reunion. Political re-union will be of immense benefit because it will necessitate the consideration of prevalence of ideal environment for the implement action of administrative policies and the consideration of increasing the conduction of ethical practices. The case of political re-union was enacted upon the actualization of the proposed OECS that aimed at enhancing unity amongst the Commonwealth Caribbean (Schoburgh, 2012).
Indeed, the actualization of this proposal was immensely essential and largely impacted on the consideration of establishing ideal environment for the enactment of economical policies and administrative policies. The formation of this unified government has propagated the reduction in the amount of resistance in the region and has further resulted in the dominance of peace. The various states have since then been granted representation and the capacity to make their decisions. Therefore, the establishment of a unified system of government has helped in the formation of ideal leadership and has further strengthened the establishment of strong public administration. During the periods of 1987, the factors of political re-union were immense witnessed within the economies of Trinidad and Tobago because they placed critical concerns on the strains of the ruling national alliance for reconstruction. The leader of this part engaged the collaboration with the political losers with the aim of establishing solidarity in the government and this had the impact of increasing the operations of development for the given nations. Over the period, the consideration of political fallacy has championed the decline I the implementation of the public administration
directives (Schoburgh, 2012). The establishment of critical public administrative directive was imminent and reduced the capacity of regional development because of the existence of misunderstanding and lack of corporation between the leaders. The reports from the economic surveys have helped in illustrating that the implement action of the public administrative duties requires the establishment of public corporation and consideration of increased development (RICHARDSON & NGWENYA, 2013). In this regard, the incentive of increasing the capacity of development will largely result in the consideration of increased development.

Conflicts and reforms
In an illustration to understand the complexities of the public administrations, the predicaments in the Commonwealth Caribbean generally helps in explaining the failures of the region. This capacity has resulted in the emergence of significant disparities in the economy. Over the period, the development of the region has been characterized by the occurrence of constant conflicts. A part form the establishment of conflict in the region, the territories of the Commonwealth Caribbean have also suffered a great deal because of the prevalence of drug consumption (RICHARDSON & NGWENYA, 2013). The consumption of drugs in this region has largely affected the prevalence of development in the region and further hindering the enactment of public administration.
Despite the plea by the government to control the aspect of drug consumption, the policies enacted by the government have not been fully enacted because the realization of corporation with the civilian has been considerately reduced. Further attributes form the region has confirmed that the enactment of regional factors has helped in the consideration of increasing the essence of development and has further instigated measures of enacting developmental policies. In view of the reports form the Commonwealth Caribbean, the consumption of drugs and the prevalence of conflicts have resulted in the enhancement of reduced governmental corporation, reduction in the enactment of public administration (Revauger, 2008). Public administration is extremely significant for the establishment of national performance because it is concerned with the enactment of essential policies that encourages the performance in the economy.

Conclusion
During the conduction of analysis about the predicaments of the Commonwealth Caribbean, is has been revealed that occurrence of these predicaments have largely affected the operations of the government. Lack of ideal public administration has resulted in the emergence of disparities in the economy and this has resulted in the reduction in the reduction of economic growth. Ideally, economic growth is essential because it leads to the realization of high economic independence. However, the Commonwealth Caribbean attained independence from the British colonialists but failed to empower their economies and this resulted in the emergence of disparities because of the reduction in the capacity to enact ideal public administration instruments. Upon the fall of the British rule, economic downturn was experienced and this was largely because the factors enhancing the growth of the economy were

adequately reduced. Some of the factors that resulted in this decline were the fall of sugar industries that caused massive unemployment and the rise in the attributes of conflicts. These factors were immensely detrimental and reduced the degree of economic performance. The decline in the performance of the economy has the concern of reducing the realization of public administration. As stated above, the Commonwealth Caribbean economies have continued to witness various predicaments but the national leadership of these economies have initiated measures have the capacity of restoring the performance of the economies. Restoration of the economic performance will help in the realization of the economic growth and more importantly will result in the establishment of ideal public administration. Therefore, the realization of these factors resulted in the emergence of recommendation to help in the development of corrective measures.

Recommendations
In view of the predicaments facing the economies of the Commonwealth Caribbean, the leading economic planners have instituted the conduction of economic factors with the aim of raising revenue and tourism has taken the leading role. The territory has significant resources for tourist attraction and subsequent economic development from the funds generated.
Secondly, the Commonwealth Caribbean has identified the capacity of political unification as an incentive that will increase the prevalence of stability and growth of the economies. In this regard, the leading political parties in the region have recommended unification of their parties with the aim of enhancing the establishment of ideal public administration that will seek to enhance economic and regional development.

Apart from the above recommendation, another recommendation that has been highlighted is the capacity of internal bickering and regional development incentives. The establishment of this recommendation is essential because it seeks to encourage regional development thereby highlighting the relevance of public administration.

Certainly, the establishment of increased regional development and growth will result in the increase of national economic development.

Finally, public administration is an essential factor that seeks to ensure the welfare and prosperity of the economies. The management and planners of the economies should enact factors and policies that encourage the enactment of these policies. Because of the development associated with public administration, the Commonwealth Caribbean government have enacted measures will ensure prosperity of these economies.









References Bill Jones, 'The Anatomy of Conservative Thought', in Topics in British Politics, ed. L. Robins, (London: Political Education Press, 1987), pp.85-98 Brown, D. R. (2010). Institutional Development in Small States: Evidence from the Commonwealth Caribbean. Halduskultuur, 11(1), 44-65. Clegg, P. (2006). Britain and the Commonwealth Caribbean: Policy under New Labour. Round Table, 95(385), 411-423. doi:10.1080/00358530600748218 Donaghy, G., & Muirhead, B. (2008). "Interests but No Foreign Policy": Canada and the Commonwealth Caribbean, 1941-1966. American Review Of Canadian Studies, 38(3), 275-294. Fitzpatrick, J., Goggin, M., Heikkila, T., Klingner, D., Machado, J., & Martell, C. (2011). A New Look at Comparative Public Administration: Trends in Research and an Agenda for the Future. Public Administration Review, 71(6), 821-830. doi:10.1111/j.1540-6210.2011.02432.x Revauger, J. (2008). Regional Integration in the Commonwealth Caribbean and the Impact of the European Union. Round Table, 97(399), 857-869. doi:10.1080/00358530802485783 RICHARDSON, B., & NGWENYA, P. (2013). Cut Loose in the Caribbean: Neoliberalism and the Demise of the Commonwealth Sugar Trade. Bulletin Of Latin American Research, 32(3), 263-278. doi:10.1111/blar.12001 Rose, J. B., Chaison, G. N., & de la Garza, E. (2000). A Comparative Analysis of Public Sector Restructuring in the U.S., Canada, Mexico, and the Caribbean. Journal Of Labor Research, 21(4), 601-625. Rowat, M. D. (1996). Public sector reform in the Latin American and Caribbean region--issues and contrasts. Public Administration & Development, 16(4), 397-411. Schoburgh, E. D. (2012). Local Government and Local Development: Bridging the Gap through Critical Discourse: Evidence from the Commonwealth Caribbean. Commonwealth Journal Of Local Governance, (10), 5-31.