Thursday, March 21, 2013


Executive summary
The development of social welfare politics and public policy in the United States has been of immense benefit. These attributes have contributed towards the realization of the fact that the need of the poor and the less fortunate members of the population are considered. This incentive has also necessitated consideration of development through the usage of policies bills and policies. One critical of enhancing the development of social welfare is through the establishment of social welfare policies. Social welfare policies are geared towards enhancing realization of social services and this has the attribute of enhancing performance of the government attributes. This policy is concerned with the provision of grants and other benefits to the poor and the women in the society. The beneficiaries of these grants are the unwed parents under the age of 18 and who are attending schools while staying with other beneficiaries. In reality, the program benefits more than 44 million people and almost a member of any family in the United States has benefited from it. The program was criticized because it lacked the element of accuracy and it encouraged the elements of dependency on the government. The aspects of political and welfare reforms have been adopted. The aspect of political and welfare reforms is an incentive that is initiated by the government to enhance success of the welfare policy. The establishment of this policy targets the federal government and is mean to cushion the government against increased spending in the provision of the assistance to the poor member of the society. Finally, it is critical to note that the federal government has initiated measures that are aimed at enhancing development of the nation through the establishment of welfare.

            Social welfare
The development of social welfare politics and public policy in the United States has been of immense benefits because it has resulted in the establishment of aware programs aimed at enhancing public empowerment. Social welfare is concerned with the aspects of accountability of the initiatives undertaken by the government while the politics of social welfare considers the implementation of the policies aimed at enhancing the realization of social welfare. In the recent past, the aspects of social welfare and public policy have been of immense consideration because of the growing concerns about the disparities in the economy. The rise of these disparities and atrocities has prompted the policy makers to analyze the functioning of polices and to amend the social security act. Poverty has adverse effects in the economy and is classified as one of the social aspects that derail the realization of social welfare. Even though poverty is not a permanent condition in the united sates, analysis has shown that it has detrimental effects like the rise in the crime rates, family instability, drug use, high teen pregnancies and other social injustices. The results have further shown that most of the social problems are centered in the major cities because of the diversity of the jobs (DiNitto, 2010). In this regard, the introduction of the social welfare policy becomes increasingly beneficial. Social beneficial policy is an incentive that is introduced by the federal government to help in the enhancement of social welfare. This is done through the establishment of the program that is aimed at assisting the less fortunate in the society. Social welfare policies are classified in social insurance policies and public assistance. Social welfare politics have emerged to counter the introduction of social welfare beneficiary programs and the aim of enhancing these politics is to safeguard the interest of the nation because the welfare policies have the tendency of encouraging dependency on the government provisions thereby leading to enhanced laziness amongst the beneficiaries. Finally, public policy is refers to the measures that govern the actions taken by the administrative executive branches of the government. These policies are in accordance with the provisions of the law and institutional customs. The aspect of public policy is largely attributed to the concerns of the public through the analysis of decision making and the perceived policy results. Public policy is another initiative of public welfare provision that is concerned with the consideration of public satisfaction (Diana M. DiNitto D. H., 2011). Over the period, the federal government is concerned with the enhancement of various policies and the critical aspect of this policy is to help in the realization that the policies initiated are ideal and beneficial for the general public.
            Social welfare policy
            The development of social welfare policy is an initiative by the federal government to assists in the provision of services and commodities to the population. Social welfare policies are geared towards enhancing realization of social services and this has the attribute of enhancing performance of the government attributes. The government has the role of enhancing the safety and security of its members and this call for the enactment of social welfare policies. Results highlighting the element social welfare policy states the nearly one third of the American population receive government benefits. The survey conducted on the families shows that more than half the families have one or more member’s benefiting from the welfare programs (Diana M. DiNitto L. K., 2007). The social welfare programs are initiated by the government and they have been divided into various categories to help in the delivery of the crucial services to the general public. The subdivisions of social welfare policies are social insurance and social public assistance. The social insurance policy is one of the provisions of social welfare programs that have been initiated by the federal government t help in the provision of health care services. Social insurance policy calls for the formation of insurance scheme where the members make contributions and finally benefits from the contributions they have with the insurance company. The benefits of the social insurance schemes are available regardless of the wealth status of the individuals (Worth, 2010). The involvement of the government in enhancing the functionality of social insurance is necessary because they require the public to demonstrate ideal needs for the insurance.
            Social welfare policy is a policy the targets the public which are the massive population of the American. This policy has been initiated by the government and it involves the consideration of creating entitlements. Entitlements are government benefits in which the congress has set eligibility criteria and everyone meeting the critical is entitled to the benefits. The records have shown that the establishment of the social welfare policy was conducted in the periods of the great depression and this included the consideration two programs. The first program for consideration by the welfare policy is the insurance program for the old age and the survivors and also another program that considered the aspects f the disabled members of the community. The old age and survivors insurance program has proven to be ideal as it provides monthly cash benefits to the retired workers and their dependents. The program also provides the cash benefits’ to the survivors of insured workers. On a similar note, the development of disability insurance program provides cash benefits to the disabled workers and their dependents. In view of these developments, the aspects of social welfare have been extremely beneficial for the economy because it has enhanced the provision of services that are critical in the establishment of social welfare to the massive population (John, 2008). The establishments of these policies have the aspect of targeting the minorities in the society and helping to uplift their status by providing financial assistance to them.  The records collected from the economy of the United States has confirmed that the scheme has more than 44 million beneficiaries and has been identified as the leading spender in the American budget. Finally, the attributes of this development have also designed tax relief programs for the poor member of the society and this is done through the incentive of tax refund. Some of the benefits of this program have been witnessed in the cases where temporary assistance is offers to the poor families to help them in meeting the food requirements as stipulated by the food stamps programs. The results about the functionality of the policy have shown immense success in uplifting the living standards. However, the policy has been faced with some element of disparities and this includes the attributes of rising cases of dependency in the government aids. Some members of the beneficiaries of the program have continued to depend solely on government provision of the amenities and this is detrimental for the enhancement of growth.
            Politics and welfare reforms
            Over the period, political agenda have always been used in the quest to enhance stability of the factors that concerns the realization of social welfare. The aspect of political and welfare reforms is an incentive that is initiated by the government to enhance success of the welfare policy. The establishment of this policy targets the federal government and is mean to cushion the government against increased spending in the provision of the assistance to the poor member of the society (Wilson, 2006). Analysis conducted y the republicans showed that the benefits awarded in the form of welfare policy was encouraging the attributes of dependency on the federal government and this promoted the establishment of the welfare and politics reform to help in the enhancement of the realization of the disparities caused by welfare policies. One of the general political trends that were initiated towards conservation of welfare was the realization that most women continued to work after child birth and there was no special claim on the welfare of the mother to be indicted to stay at home. With the continued use of the welfare initiative and provision of benefits to the legible members, the nations have significant measures that resulted in the emergence of the political incentive to derail the provision of these factors. One of the political aspects was the call to stop allocating cash benefits to the poor because an alarming rate of increases in pregnancies and unwanted motherhood was observed (Macarov, 1995). In view of this observation, the government aid was identified as the cause of this disparity and therefore, the call to abolish this program was initiated. The republicans were on the fore front with the call to initiate reforms in the economy because the support for welfare was epitomized.
            Reports from the economy has stated that the welfare reforms act of 1996 resulted in the abolition of Aid to Families With Dependent Children (AFDC) in the favor of systems of block grants to states, these states under consideration are still aloud to spend 75% of the funds that were initially spent on AFDC. Further restrictive measures were initiated and this called for the exemption of funds and other benefits o the poor people in the society. The grants could only be given to the unwed parents under the age of 18 years and living with other dependants and they continued to attend school. This policy was extremely strict and with the aim of helping the formation of an ideal society. During the introduction of the political regulation policy, the beneficiaries were given the adjustment period of up to two years and this consideration resulted in the reduction in the activities of the welfare realization (Kirst-Ashman, 2010). The attributes of political intervention has been extremely detrimental to the public because it has resulted in the waiver of the grants and benefits. The system of federal government has also abolished the provision of support to the poor members of the population. In this regard, the poor members of the population have experienced rising minimum wage, additional medical care and the expansions in the food stamp programs. Despite the cases of the above disparities, the governing president has initiated measure to ensure that the needs and want of the youth are compensated through charity organizations from the churches donations and other charities to receive federal grants and assistance.
Health care reform policy and politics
            The aspect of health care has continued to be a daunting task for the federal government because the measures enacted have not resulted in the development of ideal health care provision programs. in order to enhance realization of the social welfare of the public and the entire population, the government has initiated the development of health care reform policies and the implementation of this incentives have the consideration of the political influences. The development of the health care reform policy was aimed at restoring development of two crucial problems in the economy. These measures of concerns are the costs of health care and the expansion of health care access. Health is one of the basic needs that every member of the population should have access to and the government has the mandate of providing affordable medical services to the population (John, 2008). Furthermore, the government is charged with the responsibility of ensuring the health care services are available to the population. The establishment of affordable healthcare program by the federal government is one of the policies that are designed to help the general public in ensuring increase in welfare realization. Liberals have always sought for the creation of a national health insurance system which would provide a list of services form the doctors, nursing homes and the hospitals with less regard on the employment status or wealth consideration. The development of this policy proposes that the government be implemented as the single payer of all the medical costs of all the participants through the aspect of increased taxes. This incentive is ideal and will be beneficial in enhancing realization of increased health care provision and this leads to the enhancement of welfare amongst the population (Diana M. DiNitto L. K., 2007). On the same note, the proposal by this policy states that there is the need for government to adapt to the strategy of offering universal coverage through mandatory employer-based insurance and this will be combined with the government subsidies to cover the costs of the population living below the poverty line. This incentive will ensure that all the American population is covered by the health insurance and they are able to access medical facilities and services. This policy is extremely beneficial because it increases the welfare of the population and enhances performance of the economy.  This policy has undergone significant amendments since the first introduction by Kennedy in 1996. The recent development of policy was passed by the congress in 2004 and it included the attributes of drug coverage (Diana M. DiNitto L. K., 2007). The bill is developed to target the government with the aim of prohibiting the government against the elements of control in the pharmaceutical companies.
The enactment of these bills and provisions have largely contributed in the establishment of welfare of the population and it is evident that role of politics has been identified in the enactment of critical policies. Finally, the elements of social welfare are extremely crucial for the population because they enhance the capacity of welfare realization. The usage of the social welfare politics and public policies are extremely beneficial because they contribute towards the realization of the benefits of the population. The federal government has been on the fore front in the enactment of these policies because it has the role and duty of ensuring welfare provision to the people in the economy. 

Diana M. DiNitto, D. H. (2011). Essentials of Social Welfare:. Politics and Public Policy , 200.
Diana M. DiNitto, L. K. (2007). Social welfare: politics and public policy : with research navigator. New York: Pearson/Allyn and Bacon.
DiNitto, D. M. (2010). Social Welfare: Politics and Public Policy. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.
John, P. (2008). Analysing Public Policy. United States: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Kirst-Ashman, K. K. (2010). Human Behavior in the Macro Social Environment: An Empowerment Approach to Understanding Organizations. New York: CengageBrain.
Macarov, D. (1995). Social Welfare: . Structure and Practice , 170.
Wilson, C. A. (2006). Public policy: continuity and change. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Worth, R. (2010). Social Security Act. New York: Marshall Cavendish.