Tuesday, February 5, 2013

Sexual Dysfunctions

Sexual Dysfunctions
Introduction
            Sexual dysfunction disorders affect both women and men during their relationship. However, health care providers or patients have failed to give these conditions the required attention despite their prevalence in the society. This may be attributed to their private and somewhat awkward nature (Wincze & Carey, 2001). This paper seeks to discuss types of sexual dysfunction as they appear for both men and women.
It is important to mention that, sexual functioning is determined by emotional, physical and social expression which enables couples to bond, enjoy each other and reproduce. Sexual dysfunctions occur when the sexual response cycle is interrupted.  Therefore, the most common types of dysfunctions include desire disorders, arousal disorders, orgasmic phase disorders and sexual pain disorders(Masters& Johnson, 1966).
 The first phase of the sexual response cycle is desire.   It is clear that, the urge to perform or engage in sexual activity assumes an integral role in the process of sexual functioning.  Low desires to sexual activity may arise from cases such as depression, low levels of testosterone, aging, sexual trauma, issues of erotic development and even couple dynamics (Balon & Segraves, 2009; Wincze & Carey, 2001).   Some of the common disorders of desire include erectile dysfunction, Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder (HSDD) and sexual aversion disorder.  Secondly, there are also other disorders that can be identified during the arousal phase (VII, 2008). Disorders of arousal come about when one or both partners feel disturbed or uneasy about the changes that occur inside the body. Some of the major disorders of arousal include the male erectile disorder and female sexual arousal disorder.   The third phase is the orgasmic phase one or both partnersare unable to achieve an orgasm. Orgasmic phase disorders are said to affect both women and men (Nobre & Pinto-Gouveia, 2006).  Some of the common orgasmic disorders include male orgasmic disorder, premature ejaculation and failure to orgasm also known as anorgasmia, a condition that mainly affects women than men. The last category of disorder is sexual pain disorders which occur in the process of penetration and during the sexual act. Some of the major sexual pain disorders dyspareunia and vagismus which may come about if one or more phases of the sexual response cycle were not fulfilled (Balon & Segraves, 2009; Masters & Johnson, 1966).
 The case of sexual pain disorders presents a serious picture of sexual dysfunction that continues to affect many women. Based on the point that, it may be as a result of physical, hormonal, social and psychological factors, treatment attempts should ensure proper consideration of all the issues involved (Nobre & Pinto-Gouveia, 2006). Based on the point that, these disorders affect different couples, depending on the cicurmstance the treatment approach should ensure a change of lifestyle, hormone replacement therapy and use of lubricants in order to reduce the pain during intercourse.
In conclusion, sexual dysfunctions continue to be a major problem faced by both men and women in sexual relationships. Markedly, the sexual response cycle presents both an opportunity as well as a challenge for couples faced by such disorders.  Sexual dysfunction remains to be a major cause of relationship and marital problems across the world.  The need for diagnostic approaches presents greater opportunities for understanding how the dysfunction or sexual dissatisfaction developed. Therefore, treatment of sexual dysfunctions requires ongoing assessment and critical self-evaluation in order to provide psychological, physiological and physical help to affected individuals.
References
Masters, W.H.; Johnson, V.E. (1966). Human Sexual Response. New York: Bantam Books.
VII. Identify, Address and Treat Sexual Concerns, Dysfunctions and Disorders. (2008).
International Journal of Sexual Health, 2071-79.
Nobre, P. J., & Pinto-Gouveia, J. (2006). Dysfunctional Sexual Beliefs as Vulnerability Factors
for Sexual Dysfunction. Journal of Sex Research, 43(1), 68-75.
Balon,R., & Segraves,R.T. (2009).Clinical manual of sexual disorders.Washington, DC :
American Psychiatric Publishers.
Wincze,J.P., & Carey,M.P. (2001).Sexual dysfunction : a guide for assessment and treatment.
New York: Guilford Press.