Sunday, February 3, 2013

ORGANIZATIONAL THEORY PERSPECTIVES





Introduction
Over the period, the global regime has experienced significant development in business and organizational structure. This vital development can be attributed to the enhancement of technology and knowledge. Notably, the advancement in technology has enabled smooth running of organization and subsequent increase in the output. The analysis of the management of other organizations has proven that the overseeing the practice of managing an organization and attaining the desired results can be a daunting task because of the existence of different people with understanding capacities and personalities. However, managers of different global and national organizations agree on the use of organizational theories in aiding the performance of the organization. Similarly, the managers of these organizations have unanimously agreed that organizational has various aspects which are applicable to different organizations. Organizational theories can be stated as the general analysis and the study of an organization with the aim of understanding the complexities of the organization. The managers involved with decision making and enactment of policies must demonstrate adequate understanding of the organization. This information and understanding of the organization is aided by the analysis of results provided by organizational theories.

During the establishment of an organization, the management establishes the duties of the employees and the obligations of every worker. The management must also employ the use of organizational theories to impact on the output of the organization. Historical evidence has proved that the best performing companies globally have initiated the usage of organizational theories to understand the complexities of managing an organization. These complexities included conflict resolution techniques, efficiency maximization and enhancement of productivity (Donaldson, 2006 67). One of the organizations that have excelled in the usage of organizational theory is the electronic company Apple. Over the period, this company has employed the usage of organizational theories to increase the output of the company, enhance unity through effective conflict resolution channels, and enhance innovation and invention of new ideas (Carlton, 2001 45). Upon using these theories, Apple has emerged to be one of the most successful companies in the business scene and it continues to excel because of the observation of organizational theories. The success of the smart phone organization can largely be attributed to the capacity of the company to invest in the establishing the credibility of its employees. Each organization should ensure that the employees are treated with courtesy because they posses invaluable information that can be used as marketing tools. The success of Apple Company can be attributed to realization that the company employees have significant number of networks with other companies (Daft, Management, 2011 143). The management used this valuable information to source for the latest developments in technology and the market requirements (Grandori, 2000 26). The market changes significantly and periodically from time to time and getting updated with the market trends is extremely beneficial. Over the period, the technological advancement in the world has ensured an increase in sales for most companies. One of such companies is Apple. Apple managers have been able to tap into the huge source of networks acquired from the employees’ social media sites and create a huge data base on information (John McAuley (FIPD.), 2007 89). The success of this company was generated with the investment in the links from the social sites. The greatest breakthrough of the company was realized when they created completely revolutionary gadget in the market. Sources have stated their competitor Sony was in a better position to manufacture and introduce the revolutionary product into the market but Apple was much quicker in gathering the information and initiating the gadget in the market.

Differentiation and integration
Organizational behavior and organizational theories are going concerns that continue to grow and developed. This is a wide field of study that cannot be exhausted by the findings of research and business scholars. The diversity of human behavior cannot be predicted by the managers in any organization (David Crowther, 2004 87). This is one critical reason why stdies and research practices continue to be a daunting task to the researchers. In this regard, it is highly beneficial to the management of the organization to establish criteria for ascertaining the different personalities working in an organization. This attribute represents one the strengths of Apple Company. This idea can be borrowed from Apple and used to enhance their marketing practices. Apple managers have inspired the world by striving to ensure that they pool a good team of employees and other services in their operations that share common resources. In this regard, the managers and the workers at the company are able with the minimum resources and ensure high output per worker. The establishment of the sequences of production and establishing activities in the company are also vital because they aide the company towards its success (Donaldson, 2006 93). Finally, the enhancement of reciprocal has evidently aided the company and helped it achieve its current status as the leading company in Smartphone manufacturing. Technology plays a significant role in the development of organizational structure and strong organizational behavior. Studies have shown that the advancement of technology has significant value on the development of the social structure. Technology has helped companies reach greater heights of developments and expand their geographical area of operations to the global business outreach.

Organizational and critical theory
The analysis of the critical theory is extremely beneficial because it helps in the understanding of the complexities of the organization. With the growth and development of the organization, the management experiences increasing complexity and diversity in dealing with the issues raised by the employees. However, it is normal that a group of employees exhibit varying differences in their work places (Grandori, 2000 104). This calls for the critical aspect of managerial skills to help in managing the employees and enhance the increase in the productivity of the company. Most managers believe that learning in the organization is a continuous process that never stops. In a bid to help organize the organization and enhance the productivity of the venture, the managers of must embrace the spirit of critical theory. Critical theory will enable managers to embrace all the needs and wants of the employees (Ian M. Gould, 2005 59). This is based on the ideology that the managers must understand and convey the feelings and attributes of the employees so as to increase the earnings of the business.

It is estimated that a critical and reflective employee will seek to understand themselves and their environments. By doing so, they will establish their descriptive and interpretive skills. The realization of descriptive and interpretative aspects will be extremely beneficial in enhancing the goals and visions of the company. In order to enhance their development in the market, the managers and policy makers at Apple electronic organized a critical incentive to realize the dreams and abilities of the employees (John McAuley (FIPD.), 2007 303). This incentive was based on the company recognizing the employees as the greatest assets and seeking to develop their descriptive and interpretative aspect. This enables the employees to make moral and ethical choices and relate practice with broader sociological contexts. This understanding is also beneficial because it helps the employees and the organizations to their economic, social and political knowledge. On a broader context, the companies largely benefits when the organization employees develops their social aspects because they derive significant value of trusted customers and contracts.

The enhancement of critical theory which a constituent of organizational theory, is extremely beneficial to the organization (Kelso, 2000 271). The aim of establishing critical theory is to ensure that the employees work together as one unit towards realization of the goals and visions. Conversely, the development of critical and post odium theories provides good sources of inspiration to the employees and enable them to work under no strain.

The relevance of critical theory with regard to Apple
Over the period, Apple has been stated as one of the companies that has high regard for its employees. The contributions of the employees are significantly considered by the management body. It is important for the employees to establish a formidable bond and trust that will enable the workers to work as one unit group. Unity at work place is one of the leading contributors of the organization success (Mary Jo Hatch, 2006 36). The management of apple is sophisticated that talents are more valued than job titles. In reality, the organization is on the fore front on the fight to provide the best quality product to the market. In addition, the company acknowledges that innovation is paramount to attainting the best design that can compete with other gadgets manufactured by the competitors (Miner, 2007 83). In this era of technological advancement, the social media is vibrating with new discoveries and inventions. All these measures are characterized by information sharing. In this case, the management of the company must develop critical ideas that will help the company to safeguard the files and documents containing their innovative ideas.

The apple manager has received admiration and complements from other managers of global companies. With his ideology of being different, the chief executive officer of apple was able instill this critical thinking into his wide pool of employees. An observation of the transformation of devices manufactured by the firm shows that the gadgets were developed on a sequential order. This gives room for other managers to consider the act and practice of innovation. Innovation is one critical of organizational development that must be enhanced by the management staffs (O'Grady, 2008 283). In this regard, Steve jobs realized that a stable organizational theory had to be put in place to safe guard the requirement s of the company. The critical perspective of the organizational behavior is a lesson that all the interested parties can learn the company because Apple is a global company that was geared towards enhancing the development of personal skills and talent. One important aspect of the organization management under Apple is to help the employees realize that it is morally wrong to disclose any information about the company to warder. Sources from the company and other news rooms have confirmed that an employee committed suicide after talking about the new technology the company was planning to launch. This criterion has given the company a clear cut for the market because it can predict the output of competing tribunals. Similarly, the company has policies stating that employees must be supervised and only talented employees. Even though this system proves be tougher and on the closer because of the closer supervision, it has enabled the company to be one of the leading companies in the world (Richard L. Daft, 2012 62). Finally, from the analysis of the operations and implementations of organizational theories, other companies can borrow information stating that employees are the most trusted and reliable employees. Various organizations understand that close supervision is vital for the advancement of the organization. 

The growth of Apple’s influence
The corporations’ rise to global dominance is dictated by the adoption of theories that are beneficial in the enhancement of performance. The establishment and dominance of Apple is governed by the theory of design. Usually, the chief executive officer of the Apple group together with the other leading personalities of the venture concentrated on the design theory. They agreed that the design of the product will dictate the demand from the market. The development of this theory was based on the realization that human beings are fascinated by expressive designs (Stephen Gilliland, 2001 147). In this regard, a new market revolutionary product was brought onto the market.  The coining of the theories that have enhanced superiority of Apple in the market can be attributed to the establishment of organizational structures. The managers of other organizations should remember that it is vital to identify the strength of the company and use it as a slogan. Notably, the company realized that its strength lied in the capacity to deliver quality designs to the market (Schein, 2010 29). Furthermore, Jacob believed in delivering quality product to the market without considering the amount of resources or time that has been invested into the manufacturing. In this regard, one critical lesson that other managers and stake holders can learn is the need to use organizational theories to deliver an extremely perfect product to the market.

Organizational structure and the culture perspective
Study across the best performing organizations across the globe shows that culture forms an integral aspect of the management. Even though, there are different aspects of defining culture in the organizational theory perspective, majority of the managers agree that organizational culture represents the study and analysis of the intellectual prevalence and struggle among the proponents of various theories. In this view, the managers have managed to classify the cultures into five major categories. These categories include integration perspective- representing the organization wide agreement with the values of culture aspects like values, emotions and cognitions. Another perspective approach is the use of fragmentation perspective that denotes the advancement of culture-value relations. Also equally important is the use a meta-theory perspective where the integration, differentiation and fragmentation research fields important. The consideration in the above perspectives is extremely vital is beneficial because they help ascertain the contribution of culture and moral values in the enhancement of the company performance. Culture is defined as a normative that helps in holding and gluing up the company and its increasing demands (Ricky W. Griffin, 2011 63). Because of this importance, it is critical that the organizations acknowledges the benefits of culture and learn to appreciate. The code of ethics of a given company must clearly stipulate the dimensions of culture because it acts as an indicator that employees working together.

Cultural perspective is one the critical aspects of organizational theories that adds significant values to the performance of the organization. The establishment and realization of cultural practices among the employees is a significant step towards enhancing the performance of the organization because the employees. In this regard, it is evident that the managers, policy makers and the chief executive had ample time to study and establish the cultures of the employees. Upon realization of the cultural perspective, the employees will experience the need to work together and establish a formidable bond that will enhance the performance of the organization (David Crowther, 2004 72).

The formidable use of cultural perspective, fragmentation perspective and integrative perspective to enhance the values and performance of the organization are the key area of the organization that can be emulated by other companies. In addition, the company has established a culture of success through the use of exclusive design of the product. The company invest huge amount of money on the enhancement of the best design that competitors cannot copy. On the same note, Apple is an established company with a huge capital base and it conducts ample market research to ascertain the needs and wants of the market. The company has an established employee pool of employees capable of conducting and delivering accumulates results about the values and cultures of the organization. The employees are also bonded together by a set of common goals, culture and values. These attributes have made Apple so influential in the market and other companies aspire to a common working experience like the one established by Apple (Richard L. Daft, 2012 87).  This aspect of adoption of organizational theory and behavior are extremely beneficial for the betterment of the organization.

Conclusion
The global business environment has received significant advancement characterized by the establishment of significant business organizations. The establishment of these business organizations is aided by the development and enactment of organizational theories. These organizational theories represent a set of organized rules and objectives that provide an incentive into the operations of the business enterprise. The theories are aimed at enhancing performance of the organization and helping the organization to achieve its goals and visions.  The leading electronic manufacturer Apple has been able to successfully deliver a revolutionary gadget into the market. However, the introduction of this element is based on the formidable relationship that has been established by the management of the organization. The management of the organization has been able to establish a communication channel through which the organization can communicate set of ideas. Apple has strict regulations that stating that supervision of duties should be enhanced and only talented employees should free from supervision. However, talent must be shown through innovation or invention (O'Grady, 2008 95). Apple has captured significant part of the market because of the use of organizational theories and the production of an exclusive product with a new design in the market. Also important is the realization of cultures and values of the employees. This has enabled the company to form a wide range of network in different geographical locations so as to promote sales and more production. Other manufacturing organization can borrow ideas from this organization because they largely enhance the performance of the venture. For example, establishment of culture is beneficial towards establishing a repo with the environment. The usage of culture is a marketing aspect that enables user of Apple gadgets to experience the touch of locality and the sense of belonging. These aspects can be borrowed by other organization to aid them increasing their sales values.














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